Often concealed by cloud, Nyiragongo has been reluctant to yield its secrets. You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! As far as Lake Kivu is concerned, the most reasonably foreseeable worst scenario would be for the eruptive fissures to extend into the lake along the same line as the fractures from the Nyiragongo crater to Goma, which opened in January The lava lake level in January was not as high as in , and the surface was solidified. In some places short tongues of pahoehoe lava flowed from the sides of the main flows into topographical depressions and ignited nearby houses Fig. More specific measures to reduce vulnerability in a future eruption affecting Goma include organisational, logistical and engineering interventions to maintain and chlorinate drinking water and maintain power supplies in the city, and to stockpile and distribute emergency food rations. The eruption has occurred in a part of the world Eastern Congo that is already afflicted by a humanitarian crisis and a chronic complex emergency involving armies and armed groups of at least six countries.

Nyiragongo is an exceptional volcano, and one that can have an exceptional impact on people’s lives. In the following hours the fracture system and the eruption of lava propagated down slope for 20 km. However, a simple way of expressing societal risk is that people dying in a single event over the same period would be a catastrophe. Decision making on risk is therefore a balance between the two dangers: A medical team at Gisenyi Hospital also worked through the eruption. The possible release and dispersion of gases from Lake Kivu need to be modelled for hazard mapping purposes. Scientific risk assessment incorporating uncertainty.

Vulnerability assessment is a method of evaluating environmental hazards for the factors that amplify their impacts on populations or the environment. There would have been insufficient fuel to boil all the drinking water needed. An essential task for this group would be to define the eruptive scenarios and estimate their probabilities using elicitation and expert judgement methods, as was undertaken for the Montserrat myiragongo crisis. No lorries or stores are needed, and the logistics are folcano simpler.

Aboutrefugees also took shelter in the main city area Fig. Societal risk assessment and planning.

Volcanoes – Revision 3 – KS3 Geography – BBC Bitesize

In July around one million Rwandan refugees fled into North Kivu from the ethnic violence and civil disturbance in Rwanda in which , civilians, mostly ethnic Tutsis, died. These had not been possible to repair because of a shortage of money.


nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

The risk of enteric disease was increased further by the destruction of housing by the flows and the resultant overcrowding. As graves could not be dug in the lava rock, bodies were picked up by trucks for subsequent mass burial. The activity of the two volcanoes has not been comprehensively monitored by scientists before, though a telemeter seismic network installed by a Japanese team in during the refugee crisis functioned until it was destroyed in the refugee mass movement in November As far as the present hazard situation in Goma is concerned, the following observations can be made, pending a full hazard 2020.

These events raised international concern over the hazard of the two volcanoes to the settled refugees. Between 1 and 16 August, patients with suspected meningitis were reported, predominantly Group A, the commonest outbreak strain dtudy this African region.


The high death rate, which was almost entirely attributable to diarrhoeal disease, was unprecedented for refugee populations up to that time.

Another issue was the minor explosions linked to methane ground gas in Goma in the days after the eruption, the scattered fires on the lava flows and the pervading smell of methane in the air of the city.

At the UN OCHA Scientific Co-ordinating Committee meeting in April, a plan of work was agreed, the results of which would be fed into a quantified risk assessment by a team of experts meeting in Goma planned for late Appendix 2. By 21 January, most of these people had returned to Goma, with approximately 30, persons left scattered in the Goma area and in two camps in Rwanda19 felt earthquakes continued for days afterwards, a reminder that the volcanic activity might not be over, but the eruption had officially ceased on 18 January, though for several days afterwards lava continued to flow into Lake Kivu at the delta created by the main lava flow.

Mass casualty planning for the future eruption scenarios see above is not feasible in this setting. Warning of magma rising beneath Goma or Lake Kivu should be feasible, using a telemeter seismic monitoring network.

Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo

The video from Mt Goma shows the clouds of ash and smoke from burning vegetation around the vents and flows on the volcano being convected into the air during the day, and the progression of both lava flows into the city in the evening and night.


Both eruptions were observed in satellite images. About 30, square kilometres of land west of the volcano was destroyed by volcanic fallout, including 5, square kilometres of land in the nearby Virunga National Park, endangering chimpanzees and other wildlife. Could the clue be in the agency stickers plastering every aid vehicle in Goma, and the agency logos everywhere?

Nyiragongo In a major eruption from Mt Key Terms: The major priorities identified were as follows:. This is one of the world’s most important volcanic crises. As many aspersons left, whilst a substantial number of people stayed behind in the area of the town between the lava flows and also in the western part of the city. Scientific forecasting and relief agency preparedness and response.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

Why did aid agencies ignore all their rhetoric about responding to the needs of people, and just give what they thought the people needed, not what they said they wanted? The GVO has to have credibility with these organizations and the international agencies such as WHO, and their credibility is now being enhanced by the visible input of expert foreign scientists. The centre of the outbreak was probably Goma.

Yet the erption community in Goma continued to hold to some moral high ground about giving cash. On 30 January WHO staff met to discuss infectious disease control priorities. Contact Us – Ask questions and suggest improvements. An on-going two-year programme under the auspices of the World Food Programme for the supply of food to displaced and other vulnerable persons was in progress.

The epidemiological surveillance programme showed a large increase in total attendances at the two hospitals and 18 functioning primary health care centres after the eruption Fig.

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