Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 31, 17— The most recent eruption of Mt. This second type of intracrateral activity occurred in the main crater of Nyiragongo in and In addition, analysis of lake chemistry found the city’s main water supply had remained potable. An unknown, but probably important, number of the diarrhoeal cases were cholera. Who could ever tell that someone had gone round twice, or that a family was represented at three different distribution points? The shallow magma chamber is likely directly connected to the lava lake located in the main crater, explaining the persistence of the lava lake activity.

The volcanic field of Nyiragongo also extends southward, in the northern basin of Lake Kivu Ross et al. Mass casualty planning for the future eruption scenarios see above is not feasible in this setting. The quality is poor but manageable and water quality tests would indicate that lake water can be pumped into the system and treated for distribution. The danger included the wide-scale fissuring and lethal ground gas emissions and, above all, the potential for the eruption to catastrophically release the gases carbon dioxide and methane stored in the depths of Lake Kivu. As of afternoon of 20 January, three lava streams that split the town of Goma into three, continued smouldering in certain areas, while many areas had cooled to the point where people managed to climb over them.

Mount Nyiragongo, the mountain the volcanologist had studied for 15 years without pay, was about to blow.

nyiragongo eruption 2002 case study a level

Both and events caused casualties and huge damages to the Goma region. Several non-eruptive fractures have been noted on the southeastern flanks near the site of Kibati. The volcanic field of Nyiragongo is surrounded by the volcanic fields of Nyamulagira in the north and westKarisimbi and Mikeno volcanoes in the eastand by Lake Kivu on its southern side Fig.

Other Donor and International Organization Assistance Relief Commodities On January 23, ECHO provided five million Euros in assistance for the purchase of water, medications, and food aid and to assist with coordination and logistics in the region. He said he made his prediction after observing that there was 10 times more lava in the volcano’s crater than inwhen Nyiragongo erupted and killed hundreds of people. A cholera outbreak was prevented by the rapid intervention of NGO’s and other agencies to provide chlorinated drinking water from Lake Kivu.


Two major lava flows up to 2 m. The activity of the two volcanoes has not been comprehensively monitored by scientists before, though a telemeter seismic network installed by a Japanese team in during the refugee crisis functioned until it was destroyed in the refugee mass movement in November An outbreak of cholera reports unconfirmed, possibly exaggerated.

Cholera epidemic, Julyand lessons learned from the mass movement of refugees in November The GVO observed new fumarolic activity in the old Shaheru crater and from new cracks in the inner walls of the Nyiragongo crater following the 7 October earthquake.

The major epidemic-prone diseases cholera, measles, malaria and dysentery are endemic and were therefore expected to spread following the overcrowding and displacement. Perceptions of the people were that the impact extended to heart attacks, miscarriages and other llevel. Established displacement camps, coordinated relief efforts Government of South Africa: Buildings consumed in the fires were still smouldering and the air would have been contaminated with residual smoke and dust from the fires, including light amounts of volcanic ash, and capable of producing high concentrations of fine particles in the ambient air.

By late afternoon, at least one flow had advanced into Goma. Learn more about ReliefWeb. Over the years, his monitoring equipment has been stolen and vandalized, yet he has persisted. A detailed analysis of the conflict and humanitarian crisis, including the policies towards Goma of outside governments and relief bodies, was outside the terms of reference of this myiragongo.

You should be able to use the knowledge and understanding you have gained about eruption of Mount Nyiragongo to answer the following exam style question:. Two experts in volcanology and geochemistry are due to arrive in Rwanda tomorrow with water eruptkon devices, temperatures and acidity measurement equipment to provide technical assistance.

nyiragongo eruption 2002 case study a level

There are three principal volcano scenarios presented in the draft plan that will need to be expanded upon in more detail as part of the Risk Assessment meeting. A full hazard assessment has yet to be undertaken.


The case for cash: Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption – ODI HPN

During periods of renewing activity, spatter cones can develop on the encrusted lava lake and emit lava flows that progressively fill the main crater. No lorries or stores are needed, and the logistics are certainly simpler.

It took five days to distribute the food to those in need in Goma, and after 25 January the distribution switched to hospitals, camps and to people living outside Goma. Warning of magma rising beneath Goma or Lake Kivu should be feasible, using a telemeter seismic monitoring network.

The water distribution network currently services between 30 and 40 percent of the city, mostly in western parts of Goma. However, no epidemiological evidence to support this conclusion was presented. This approach includes the careful siting of human settlements and key infrastructure, such as hospitals and other buildings of importance, overhead power supplies and sub-stations, the water pumping stations and the water distribution networks, stores of emergency food erhption other essential supplies, etc.

Access in and out of the city nyiragogno relatively free-moving using the single main roads out to the east and west, but these could easily become congested during an evacuation of the population except that they would mostly move on foot. Let’s hope we don’t make the same mistakes in the future.

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This is a relatively small risk by any standards and one that many people would take rather than sgudy. The humanitarian community will remain vigilant in case of further seismic activity which might force the population to flee once again.

If it circulates in the economy somewhere then it is doing its job.

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